Что такое FMCG-компании; fmcg что это такое; Виды деятельности

During the First World War, many thousands of members of the British armed forces — as well as a smaller number of soldiers in the Dominion and Imperial forces and several civilians — were tried by courts martial for a variety of offences ranging from murder to sleeping on duty.

In comparison to the overall number of men who saw service, they constituted a tiny minority of the British army. Nonetheless, particularly in the last 30 years, the punishments meted out by army courts martial during the war — most notably the death sentences carried out in more than 300 cases — have triggered an emotive debate. The question of whether or not these men should be posthumously ‘rehabilitated’ remains controversial.

Courts martial

Between August 1914 and 31 March 1920, just over 3,000 men were sentenced to death in British army courts martial. Offences included desertion (by far the most common capital crime), cowardice, murder, espionage, mutiny and striking a superior officer. In roughly 90% of cases, the sentence was commuted to hard labour or penal servitude.

Recourse to this most extreme application of military discipline varied among First World War combatants. Britain seems to have fallen somewhere between France — whose much larger army suffered roughly 700 executions — and Germany, whose High Command seems to have deployed firing squads less regularly than its British counterpart.

In the British army, there were four types of courts martial. Only two of them — the general court martial (GCM) and the field general court martial (FGCM) — were invested with the authority to sanction the death penalty. The district court martial and the regimental court martial tried minor offences and could only impose limited terms of punishment that excluded the death penalty.

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The records

The surviving records of army courts martial came to The National Archives via the office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG) and reside in the WO series. Records of trial proceedings for the most serious military crimes (involving sentences carrying the death penalty) are located in WO 71 — see, for example, the record of the general court martial of Eric Skeffington Poole.

The JAG’s office also compiled registers of both general and field courts martial that provide information about each defendant’s name, rank, regiment and place of trial, as well as the charge, finding and sentence passed against him. These can be found in WO 90 (for general courts martial abroad), WO 92 (for general courts martial at home) and WO 213 (for field general courts martial abroad). A register of district courts martial, containing similar information but for lesser offences, is located in WO 86.

Records of regimental courts martial are altogether harder to find, as they were not sent to the JAG’s office. Some information might be found in either war diaries (WO 95) or regimental records. The only other significant records held at The National Archives — in WO 93 — are the registers for Australian and Canadian soldiers tried by courts martial.

For further information on such subjects as death sentences passed, British army mutineers (of which there were more than 2,000 during the First World War) and officers court martialled by the British army, there are a number of important books, all of which are held in The National Archives library. Also, see Courts martial and desertion in the British Army.

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Liver tumor segmentation using kernel-based FGCM and PGCM

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Bertam, Penang, Malaysia

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Bertam, Penang, Malaysia

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MICCAI’11: Proceedings of the Third international conference on Abdominal Imaging: computational and Clinical Applications

ABSTRACT

Low contrast between tumor and healthy liver tissue is one of the significant and challenging features among others in the automated tumor delineation process. In this paper we propose kernel based clustering algorithms that incorporate Tsallis entropy to resolve long range interactions between tumor and healthy tissue intensities. This paper reports the algorithm and its encouraging results of evaluation with MICCAI liver Tumor Segmentation Challenge 08 (LTS08) dataset. Work in progress involves incorporating additional features and expert knowledge into clustering algorithm to improve the accuracy.

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README.md

fgcmcal: Global Photometric Calibration in LSST with FGCM

This is the LSST stack code to interface with the Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM) third-party package to perform global photometric survey calibration. Please see Burke, Rykoff, et al. 2018 for the paper describing the method, and https://github.com/lsst/fgcm/tree/lsst-dev (the LSST fork of https://github.com/erykoff/fgcm) for the Python implementation that is used by this fgcmcal package.

FGCM performs a global photometric calibration, starting with instrumental fluxes and producing top-of-the-atmosphere standard fluxes by forward modeling the atmosphere and instrument, including chromatic corrections. Overall absolute calibration is reduced to the computation of one offset per band, which fgcmcal can optionally compute based on a reference catalog.

Currently, the fgcmcal package will only run on HSC data within the stack, but this is being actively worked on. In general, the FGCM code should be compatible with any survey with the following requirements:

  • Visit/CCD based observations
  • Transmission curves for each filter, preferably for each CCD
  • MODTRAN4 is required to generate new atmosphere tables.
  • Atmosphere tables for the following telescope locations are included:
    • Blanco telescope at CTIO (DES)
    • Subaru telescope at Mauna Kea (HSC)
    • LSST telescope at Cerro Pachon (LSST)
  • Enough memory to hold all the observations in memory at once.
    • A full run of four years of DES survey data can be run on a machine with 128 Gb RAM and 32 processors in less than a day.

Installing the fgcm and fgcmcal Packages

As of DM-16128, both fgcm (the third-party package) and fgcmcal (the stack interface) are distributed with lsst_distrib . Therefore, with a stack installation after w_2018_47 or v17.0 or later, setting up fgcmcal is as simple as:

Or, to only get fgcmcal and required dependencies:

Please see the FGCM Cookbook for doing a test run on HSC RC data on lsst-dev and to learn the control flow of fgcmcal .

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